yzdayxp 发表于 2006-5-4 14:04:00

[推荐]合同法完整笔记1-2

<p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center;"><b><span style="FONT-SIZE: 18pt; COLOR: #003399;"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></span></span></b><b><span style="FONT-SIZE: 18pt; COLOR: #003399; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 18pt; COLOR: #003399;"><p></p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">指定教材:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt;"><br/><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;&nbsp; </font></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">王利明、崔建远主编:《合同法》,北京大学出版社,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt;"><font face="Times New Roman">2000</font></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">年</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt;"><font face="Times New Roman">1</font></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">月第二版。定价:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt;"><font face="Times New Roman">16</font></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">元。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt;"><p></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt;"><p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; TEXT-INDENT: -42pt; tab-stops: list 48.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第一章<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同与合同法</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 6pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">第一节</span><span lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;&nbsp; </font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同的概念和特征</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 6pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">大陆法学者基本认为合同是一种合意或协议。英美法学者大都认为合同是一种允诺。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 6pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同是平等主体的自然人、法人及其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利、义务关系的意思表示一致的协议。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 6pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同具有以下特征:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">1、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同是平等主体的自然人、法人和其他组织所实施的一种民事法律行为。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">2、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同以设立、变更或终止民事权利义务关系为目的和宗旨。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 24.0pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">3、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同是当事人协商一致的产物或意思表示一致的协议。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 6pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">由于合同是合意的结果,因此它必须包括以下要素:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 63pt; TEXT-INDENT: -36pt; tab-stops: list 63.0pt; mso-list: l0 level2 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第一、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同的成立必须要有两个以上的当事人</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 63pt; TEXT-INDENT: -36pt; tab-stops: list 63.0pt; mso-list: l0 level2 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第二、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">各方当事人必须互相做出意思表示</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 63pt; TEXT-INDENT: -36pt; tab-stops: list 63.0pt; mso-list: l0 level2 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第三、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">各个意思表示是一致的,也就是说当事人达成了一致的协议</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 27pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 101.25pt; TEXT-INDENT: -53.25pt; tab-stops: list 101.25pt; mso-list: l0 level3 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第二节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同与债</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">债是发生在特定主体之间请求为特定行为的财产法律关系。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">债的概念起源于罗马法。罗马法将债分为基于契约之债和基于不法行为之债。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">债具有以下法律特征:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l4 level1 lfo3;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">1、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">主体的特定性和相对性。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l4 level1 lfo3;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">2、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">债的内容主要表现为债权人有权向债务人请求为特定行为或不为特定行为,债务人有义务为特定行为或不为特定行为。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l4 level1 lfo3;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">3、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">债权人权利的实现有赖于债务人履行其应尽的义务。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 101.25pt; TEXT-INDENT: -53.25pt; tab-stops: list 101.25pt; mso-list: l0 level3 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第三节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同关系</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同是发生在当事人之间的一种法律关系。合同关系和一般民事法律关系一样,也是由主体、客体、内容三个要素组成的。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 101.25pt; TEXT-INDENT: -53.25pt; tab-stops: list 101.25pt; mso-list: l0 level3 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第四节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同的分类</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">一、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">双务合同和单务合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">二、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">有偿合同与无偿合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">三、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">有名合同与无名合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">有名合同又称为典型合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">无名合同又称为非典型合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">从实践来看,无名合同大量存在,关于其类型,学者一般将其分为三类:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo4;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">1、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">纯无名合同,即以法律纯无规定的事项为内容,或者说,合同的内容不属于任何有名合同的事项</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo4;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">2、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">混合合同,即在一个有名合同中规定其他有名合同事项的合同。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l6 level1 lfo4;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">3、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">准混合合同,即在一个有名合同中规定其他无名合同事项的合同。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">四、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">诺成合同与实践合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">所谓诺成合同是指当事人一方的意思表示一旦经对方同意即能产生法律效果的合同,即一诺即成的合同。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">这种合同的特点在于当事人双方意思表示一致合同即告成立。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">所谓实践合同,是指除当事人双方意思表示一致以外尚须交付标的物才能成立的合同。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">实际上,诺成合同与实践合同的主要区别在于,两者成立或生效的时间是不同的。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">五、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">要式合同与不要式合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">根据合同是否应该以一定的形式为要件,可将合同分为要式合同与不要式合同。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">所谓要式合同,是指必须根据法律规定的方式而成立的合同。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">所谓不要式合同,是指当事人订立的合同依法并不需要采取特定的形式,当事人可以采取口头方式,也可以采取书面形式。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">六、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">主合同与从合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">根据合同相互间的主从关系,可以将合同分为主合同与从合同。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">七、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">本约(本合同)与预约(预备合同)</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">所谓预约,是指当事人之间约定将来订立一定合同的合同;将来应当订立的合同,称为本约。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">如将来欲买卖机票为本约,而预先约定将来购买飞机票,则为预约。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 90pt; TEXT-INDENT: -21pt; tab-stops: list 90.0pt; mso-list: l0 level4 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">八、</font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">为订约人自己订立的合同和为第三人利益订立的合同</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">为第三人利益订立的合同,由于这类合同中的第三人仅享受权利而不承担义务,因此这类合同又被称为“第三人利益合同”,第三人也常常被称为受益人,这种合同的法律特征表现如下:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo5;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">1、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">第三人不是订约当事人,他不必在合同上签字,也不需要通过其代理人参与缔约。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo5;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">2、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">该合同只能给第三者设定权利,而不得为其设定义务。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo5;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">3、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">该合同的订立,事先无须通知或征得第三人的同意。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 101.25pt; TEXT-INDENT: -53.25pt; tab-stops: list 101.25pt; mso-list: l0 level3 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第五节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法概述</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">二、合同法的特征:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo6;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">1、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法具有较强的任意性</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo6;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">2、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法强调平等协商和等价有偿原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo6;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">3、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法是富于统一性的财产法</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l5 level1 lfo6;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">4、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法是创造财富的法律</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 101.25pt; TEXT-INDENT: -53.25pt; tab-stops: list 101.25pt; mso-list: l0 level3 lfo2;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第六节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">我国合同法的历史发展</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">1950</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">年,政务院财政经济委员会颁布了我国第一个合同规章,即(机关、国营企业、合作社签订契约的暂行办法)</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><font face="Times New Roman">1956</font></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">年(商业部、地方工业部对以前有关工商计划衔接贯彻经济合同中若干问题规定的联合通知)</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; TEXT-INDENT: -42pt; tab-stops: list 48.0pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第二章<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法的基本原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 75pt; TEXT-INDENT: -48pt; tab-stops: list 75.0pt; mso-list: l1 level2 lfo1;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第一节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同自愿原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同自愿是指当事人依法享有在缔结合同、选择相对人、决定合同内容以及在变更和解除合同、选择合同补救方式等方面的自由。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 75pt; TEXT-INDENT: -48pt; tab-stops: list 75.0pt; mso-list: l1 level2 lfo1;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第二节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">诚实信用原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">诚实信用原则是指当事人在从事民事活动时,应诚实守信,以善意的方式履行其义务,不得滥用权利以及规避法律或合同规定的义务。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">在大陆法国家,它常常被称为债法中的最高指导原则或“帝王规则”。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">在合同法中,诚实原则具体体现为:</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo7;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">1、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同订立阶段应依循诚信原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo7;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">2、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同订立后至履行前应依循诚信原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo7;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">3、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同的履行应依循诚信原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo7;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">4、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同终止以后应遵循保密和忠实义务</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 18pt; TEXT-INDENT: -18pt; tab-stops: list 18.0pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo7;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">5、<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同的解释应依循诚信原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US"><p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 75pt; TEXT-INDENT: -48pt; tab-stops: list 75.0pt; mso-list: l1 level2 lfo1;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第三节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合法原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 75pt; TEXT-INDENT: -48pt; tab-stops: list 75.0pt; mso-list: l1 level2 lfo1;"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-list: Ignore;"><font face="Times New Roman">第四节<span style="FONT: 7pt 'Times New Roman';">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">鼓励交易原则</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">交易,是指在独立的、平等的市场主体之间,就其所有的财产和利益实行的交换。</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">合同法以调整交易关系为对象,各种纷繁复杂的交易关系,都要表现为合同关系并要借助于合同法律规则予以规范。</span></p>

khtkht2004 发表于 2006-5-4 15:30:00

<p>好资料,可惜楼主没有全部上传,如果有全部的,希望可以全部上传和大家共享!谢谢您提供资料!</p>

ahoo 发表于 2006-5-12 00:43:00

<p><font size="4">楼主注明的版本是不是写错啦!</font></p><p><font size="4">我考时使用的版本是2004年版啊!</font></p>

zyn_001 发表于 2006-5-10 16:04:00

谢谢楼主!

skyfengy 发表于 2006-9-19 22:31:00

好贴,谢谢楼主!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

jasper34 发表于 2006-10-3 21:31:00

谢谢

hzm2006 发表于 2006-10-18 13:34:00

<p>是不是写错了,今年考的是2004年版本的阿</p><p></p>

早已习惯 发表于 2007-1-7 23:36:00

恩……希望有用

淡泊ddk 发表于 2007-1-8 07:05:00

好!

jc0104 发表于 2007-4-1 19:17:00

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